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History

History:

Archeology

     The village has been inhabited since ancient times. Ancient settlement is proven by unearthed relics found at Zámeček, which date back to Neolithic and Bronze Age. Neolithic settlement of Želiezovce culture and ceramics of Bukovohorska culture were uncovered in Bánov. Other findings are from Iron Age and La Téne period. There were exposed urn graves of the late Roman period (2nd century AD). Other findings prove the settlement after the arrival of the Slavs.

 History      

      Termination of Great Moravia had far-reaching consequences on the development of Upper Danubian Slavs, the direct ancestors of today's Slovaks. After the collapse of central authority, the territory of Slovakia disintegrated into smaller administrative districts headed by representatives of the local aristocracy. Bánov’s surroundings were invaded by groups of Hungarian fighters during the first half of the 10th century.

Bánovská Kesa – fortress of Ancient Hungarians

   In order to control subjugated territory, the ancient Hungarians began to build a dense network of fortresses on the occupied territories. Hungarians named them after one of the seven old Hungarian tribes. The whole Ponitrie, from river Nitra to the north, was occupied by representatives of old ancient Hungarian tribes of Megyer, Keszi, Kér and Gyarmat. The original name of Bánov - Bánkeszi - Bánove Kosihy - offers a hypothesis that a local village of Hungarian guards from the Kosihy tribe, founded in the first half of the 10th century in the neighborhood of earlier Slavic settlements, was the seat of a senior military commander (bán). Battle on the river Lech in 955, in which the Hungarian army suffered a crushing defeat by the German King Otto I. and his allies, was important for further development of ancient Hungarian tribes. Hungarian population gradually mixed with the original Slavic population.

The oldest written record

Bánov, respectively three villages named Kesa on its territory, had already appeared for the first time in written sources in 1113. They were referred to as villa Quescu and alia villa Kescu, Bánovská Kesa (Bánkeszi) and Malá or Mlynská Kesa (Kiskeszi, later Molnoskeszi) or with the working title Podhradská Kesa (Suburbana Kesa). This last Kesa but soon disappeared and probably in the late 13th century or early 14th century fused with Bánovská Kesa.

 

Settlements in Bánov’s surroundings in Middle ages

   A calculation of settlements in surroundings of Bánov in Zobor Charter from 1113 suggests that the medieval settlement of its surroundings was once much more diverse than today.
    Reconstruction of the oldest medieval settlement surrounding Bánov is possible due to the initial information from Zobor Charter from 1113, in particular boundaries of its land area (metácia) in 1274, boundaries of individual components of Ňarhíd’s property complex from 1264, boundaries of Meger lands from 1274 and boundaries of Ďorok lands from 1214. It is clear that the northern neighbor of Bánov was Megered property that belonged to the Queen.

Construction of the church

       Construction of St. Michael Archangel church in Bánov occurred in 11th or 12th century. The first written report, which is to be found in boundaries documentation, dates back to 1274. Another report about the church dates from the years 1332-1337 in the statement of papal tithes. In early modern times, Bánovská Kesa and Malá Kesa were joined to Šurany.

Bánovská Kesa in the hands of the nobles of Sek

   From the above mentioned report on Bánovská Kesa in Zobor Charter from 1113 is obvious that during the 11th century there was a break-up of the Kesa property into three parts - Bánovská Kesa, north-situated Malá Kesa and one more Podhradská Kesa (suburbana Kezu) which ceased and merged with Bánovská Kesa. All three were named Kesa in the document from 1113. Belo IV gave it to the Štefan, son of the Gut from the Gutkeled (de Genere Guthkeled), for proved faithful and zealous services. Štefan from Gutkeled family died around 1272 without heirs and Bánovská Kesa fell to the king again. In 1274 the then Hungarian king Ladislav IV gave the vacant property (terram Kezw) to Štefan’s blood relative (cognatus) and Royal familiaris Apo, son of Benedict from Sek (de Zyguy) near Šurany.

 Malá or Mlynská Kesa a nobles from Oponice

    More northern and smaller area of the Kesa property, already divided in 11th century into two, respectively three property units of Kesa, started to be called Mlynská Kesa (Molnos Keszi) in 14th century and later Malá Kesa (Kis Keszi) in 15th century. In some unspecified time the Hungarian king Belo IV gave this part of the Kesa village to noble Bartholomej of Veča near Šaľa, who was from the Péc family (ancestors of the noble Apponyi family). It happened sometime before the 1268.

 

At the end of the Middle Ages

   Bánovská Kesa was a medium sized village of Nitra County at the end of the Middle Ages. From 14th century it evolved as an integral part of the Šurany estate and frequently changing owners.  At the end of the Middle Ages, Bánovská Kesa fell into the hands of Országh family of Gut. Within this estate, Kesa was considered one of the largest villages. Its tributary settlements were spread on both sides of the road, from the arm of river Nitra to St. Michael church standing at the end of a municipality. No lesser nobility (squires) lived in the village in the Middle Ages, only peasants and cotters.

 

Bánov during the Ottoman occupation in the years 1526 - 1711

   In the Battle of Mohacs in 1526, Ottoman Sultan defeated the Hungarian army. Death of childless King Ľudovít II of Hungary, who miserably drowned when escaping the battlefield, greatly complicated the internal and foreign political situation of the Hungarian Kingdom. In 1541 the Ottomans managed to capture the capital of Hungary, Budín, and the country split into three parts. The territory of Slovakia became, for some time, the core of the Hungary ruled by Habsburgs. On the background of these events, the fate of Bánov, Bánovská Kesa and Malá Kesa in Nitra country have evolved. Residents first got in contact with the Turks in the autumn of 1530. Turks burned 80 villages and towns in Nitra county. Occupied part of Nitra County was included in Esztergom Sandžak. The anti-Turks fights were joined by the anti-Habsburg uprising. Bánovská Kesa in early modern period remained a part of the Šurany estate, which became an important link of anti-Turks defense. A threat from the Ottomans intensified in the second half of the 17th century. In the summer of 1663, during the great campaign against Vienna, Turks conquered Nové Zámky. Bánovská Kesa was ravaged and the territory then belonged to Novozámocký ejálet (specific division of a land property). Osmans remained in possession of Nové Zámky until 1685. After this year, Ottoman troops were pushed to the south. Long, turbulent period ended peacefully in Satu Mare in the 1711. The village was resettled by new Slovak population. After resettling, the population grew until the first quarter of 18th century. In 1828 the village had a total population of 1,358.

Bánovská Kesa  and Malá Kesa in post-revolutionary years

The Revolution of 1848/49 brought about the disappearance of feudalism, abolition of absolute monarchy, adoption of the Constitution of bourgeois type which has guaranteed fundamental civil rights and freedoms, the principle of people's council which violated the exclusive rights of the nobility in the county administration and made it available to the commoners, representatives of towns and villages and those who owned property prescribed by law. Shortly after the resettlement in 1867 and the last days of 1869, the first modern census of the Hungarian population was held. The objective of the census were all persons present at that time in the country. The most detailed census enabled to look into homes of Kesa people, observe the population of municipalities as well as family and social conditions in the second half of the 19th century.

According to the census in Bánovská Kesa , 154 houses and 1,258 inhabitants were enrolled.

Railway

Although the first train passed Novozámocká station already in 1850, it did not become a major hub until 1900, after the construction of a route Nové Zámky - Šurany, legally approved by the Article XXX/1897. Only one stop built on this route was in Bánov. The construction of this short, just 9 km railway section was carried out by Hungarian State Railways (MÁV), making it possible to connect Nové zámky directly with Nitra. Bánov railway station was built only a few kilometers from the village center.

In 1886 Bánovská Kesa gained the status of a large municipality and Malá Kesa status of a small village. Austro-Hungarian settlement brought a pressure on Magyarization of non-Magyar population. Slovak language could not be used in schools. Of 1653 residents only 49 reported Hungarian ethnicity.

First World War

Assassination of the heir to the throne marked the beginning of the First World War. People of Kesa enlisted to the army in Komárno, all men younger than 37 years. They were detached mostly to the southern front. War killed 41 residents of the village.

In the Czechoslovak Republic

After the war, Austria Hungary ceased and new states were created. Slovakia became a part of a whole new state of Czechoslovakia. After a difficult post-war period, the village economy gradually stabilized. Consolidation was negatively affected by the economic crisis in the early 30s. Revenues of the municipality were gained from land renting, hunting rights, municipal forges, and slaughterhouses. The main occupation of the inhabitants was still agriculture, crafts, work on the railway and in nearby businesses. At the end of 1930’s, the international situation deteriorated, Nazis came to power in Germany and the world was coming up to another war.

Vienna arbitration

     Hungarian revisionist efforts against Slovakia culminated at the end of October 1938 in Vienna Arbitration, which gave the Hungary territories in southern Slovakia along with Bánovská Kesa and Malá Kesa. Slovakia lost 10 390 km2 of its area with expensively constructed border fortifications. Slovakia also lost a substantial part of its agricultural base (Žitný ostrov) which substantially disrupted the transport network.

Bánovská Kesa and Malá Kesa in 1939-1945

     Hungarian government and the church organized several spectacular events with political overtones shortly after the Vienna Arbitration. Residents of Bánova learned about the life of Slovaks in the occupied territories from the daily newspapers Slovenská Jednota, issued by Slovak National Unity Party in Nové Zámky. The real horrors of war affected inhabitants of Bánov in the fall of 1944, when the upcoming events of war risen air activity over Hungarian territory. Nové Zámky were destroyed by bombing of U.S. 15th Air Force on 7 October 1944. The municipality was liberated on 28 March 1945. War killed 35 residents of municipality. A National committee has become a new administration unit in a municipality. In September 1945, the church schools became public schools. In 1947, the electrification of the municipality was completed.

After February 1948

After February 1948, the leading force in the country became a Communist Party. The principles of democratic government were replaced by the rule of a one party. Bánovská Kesa changed its name to Bánov on 11th June 1948. In early 1949, a preparatory committee for the establishment of JRD was created. Larger farmers have become enemies of the state. The municipality had 3829 inhabitants in 1961. The worst manifestations of totalitarianism ended with death of Stalin and Gottwald. Hopes for a better life ended in 1968 with an invasion of Warsaw Pact troops. Events of November 1989 ended one-party rule in Czechoslovakia and allowed a return to democracy.

Return to democracy after 1989

Organization Public Against Violence, which organized several public meetings in the community center, was established in Bánov. The changes also took place in the administrating bodies of MNV, three representatives were from the Communist Party, two from the VPN, two from KDH and two without party affiliation. On the 6th September 1990, the Act on Municipalities under which the village became a separate self-governing territorial unit was passed. The municipality is gradually modernizing and expanding. New residential houses for young families were built, the center of a municipality underwent a complete reconstruction in 2010. Bánov is a modern municipality today, where the conditions for the happy life of its inhabitants are created.

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